Selasa, 23 Desember 2014

Lokavidu: Knower of the Worlds



 
The Blessed One knew the ‘worlds’, he knew the mundane, tangible i.e. “our world”, and he also knew the supramundane world…the world of the Arahants. He knew the world of the Dhamma. He knew the realms of the Gods and the Hell realms. We know that the Blessed One visited both the ‘higher’ and ‘lower’ realms, there are numerous references to these visits in the Sutta Pitaka.

And amazingly enough there is a sutta which is some translations has some surprising modern information in it. The ancient Indians it seems knew about the larger universe in ways that modern Western science has only recently come to know. According to some translators the ancient Indians apparently knew that planetary systems and galaxies are roughly shaped like wheels. In Anguttara Nikaya 4’s, sutta 45, the deva Rohitassa visits the Blessed One at Savatthi. Once again, in some of these translations, though not the one I give here, Rohitassa talks of travelling in outer space to find the end of the universe. By this we are able to see that the Blessed One’s knowledge of the worlds wasn’t just confined to the Dhamma, he as part of his Enlightenment gained knowledge about everything. Because he had been married, the Lord Buddha knew about the world of relationships as well, in short nothing escaped him.

1.5.1  On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Sāvatthi in Jetá’s Grove, Anāthpiņḍika’s Park. Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva Rohitassa, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jetá’s Grove, approached the Blessed One. He paid homage to the Blessed One, stood to one side and said:

“Is it possible, Bhante, by travelling to know, see, or reach the end of the world, where one is not born, does not grow old and die, does not pass away and get reborn?”

“I say, friend, that by travelling one cannot know, see, or reach that end of the world where one is not reborn, does not grow old and die, does not pass away and get reborn.”

“It is astounding and amazing, Bhante, how well this was stated by the Blessed One: ` I say, friend, that by travelling one cannot know, see, or reach that end of the world where one is not reborn, does not grow old and die, does not pass away and get reborn.’

“In the past, Bhante, I was a seer named Rohitassa, son of Bhoja, one possessing psychic potency, able to travel through the sky. My speed was that of a light arrow easily shot by a firm bowed archer – one trained, skilful and experienced – across the shadow of a Palmyra tree. My stride was such that it could reach from the eastern ocean to the western ocean. Then, while I possessed such speed and such a stride, the wish arose in me: `I will reach the end of the world by travelling.’ Having a lifespan of a hundred years, living for a hundred years, I travelled for a hundred years without pausing except to eat, drink, chew, and to taste, to defecate and to urinate, and to dispel fatigue with sleep; yet I died along the way without having reached the end of the world.

It is astounding and amazing, Bhante, how well this was stated by the Blessed One: ` I say, friend, that by travelling one cannot know, see, or reach that end of the world where one is not reborn, does not grow old and die, does not pass away and get reborn.’

I say, friend, that by travelling one cannot know, see, or reach that end of the world where one is not reborn, does not grow old and die, does not pass away and get reborn. Yet I say that without having reached the end of the world there is no making an end of suffering. It is in this fathom long body endowed with perception and mind that I proclaim 1. the world, 2. the origin of the world, 3. the cessation of the world and 4. the way leading to the cessation of the world.”

The end of the world can never be reached
by means of travelling [across the world];
yet without reaching the world’s end
there is no release from suffering.
Hence the wise one, the world-knower,
who has reached world’s end and lived the spiritual life,
having known the world’s end, at peace,
does not desire this world or another.

This sutta from the Udana clearly illustrates that the Blessed One knew the world. Here we have an example from immediately after his Enlightenment, where he has examined the world and seen for himself that it isn’t a very happy place. So it is the Blessed One clearly and comprehensively knew the human realm.

1.5.2 “Thus I have heard. At one time the Lord was staying at Uruvela, beside the river Neranjara at the foot of the Bodhi Tree, having just attained full enlightenment.  At that time the Lord sat crossed legged for seven days experiencing the bliss of liberation. Then at the end of those seven days, the lord emerged from that concentration and examined the world with the Buddha eye, the Lord saw various beings tormented by various torments and consumed by feverish longings born of passion, hate and delusion. Then, on realising its significance, the Lord uttered on that occasion this inspired utterance:

This world is subject to torment;
Afflicted by contact, it calls a disease “self”
For however it is conceived
It is ever other than that.
Becoming something other,
The world is held by being,
But what it delights in brings fear,
And what it fears is suffering.
Now this holy life is lived,
In order to abandon being.

Whatever recluses and Brahmins have said that freedom from being comes about through some kind of being, none of them, I say, are freed from being. And whatever recluses and Brahmins have said that escape from being comes about through non-being, none of them, I say, have escaped from being. This suffering arises dependent upon clinging. With the ending of all grasping, no suffering is produced.
Look at the people in the world, afflicted by ignorance,
Come into being, delighting in being, not freed.
Whatever forms of being exists, in anyway, anywhere,
All these forms of being are impermanent,
Subject to suffering, of a nature to change.
On seeing this as it actually is with perfect wisdom,
The craving for being is abandoned,
Yet one does not delight in non-being.
Nibbana is the destruction of all cravings, complete dispassion and cessation.
A bhikkhu whose cravings are extinguished,
By not grasping has no renewal of being.
Mara is vanquished, the battle is won:
The serene one has passed beyond all forms of being.
Ud 3.10 BMR

A quotation that illustrates the Blessed One’s knowledge of the world of the mind in a format that is often used to teach the Four Noble Truths.

1.5.3 “Monks, the world has been understood by the Tathagata; the Tathagata is released from the world.

The origin of the world is fully understood by the Tathagata; the origin of the world is abandoned by the Tathagata.

The cessation of the world is fully understood by the Tathagata; the cessation of the world has been realised by the Tathagata.

The path to the cessation of the world is fully understood by the Tathagata; the path to the cessation of the world has been developed by the Tathagata.

Monks, in the world with its devas, Mara and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, devas and humans, whatever is seen, heard, sensed and cognised, attained, searched into, pondered over by the mind—all that is fully understood by the Tathagata. That is why he is called the Tathagata.

Moreover, monks, whatever the Tathagata speaks, utters and proclaims from the day of his perfect enlightenment up to the day when he utterly passes away into the Nibbana element without residue left—all that is just so and not otherwise. Therefore he is called the Tathagata.

 Monks, as the Tathagata speaks, so he acts; as he acts, so he speaks. Therefore he is called the Tathagata.

 Monks, in the whole world with its devas, Mara and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and Brahmins, devas and humans, the Tathagata is the conqueror, unconquered, one who sees-at-will, the wielder of power. Therefore he is called the Tathagata.

By comprehending the world,
All in the world just as it is,
From all the world he is released;
In all the world he clings to nothing.
He is the all victorious sage,
The liberator from all bonds,
By him the highest peace was won: Nibbana that is free from fear.
A taintless enlightened one,
Free from all woe,
With doubt destroyed,
Has made an end to all kamma,
Set free in the destruction of life’s props.
Exalted one, he is the Buddha,
The lion without compare;
For the divine and human worlds
He set rolling the Supreme Wheel.
Therefore devas and human beings
Who go for refuge to the Buddha,
Meet him full of reverence
The mighty one free from self doubt.
“Tamed, of the tamed he is the best;
Calmed, of the calm he is the first;
Freed, of the free he is supreme;
Crossed over, the best of those who cross.”
So saying, they pay him reverence,
The mighty one free from self doubt;
In all the worlds of devas and humans
There is none who ever equals you!
An 54 BMR

It really doesn’t get much simpler than this as a description of what the Blessed One understood as ‘knower of the worlds’. Here we have the Blessed One describing the five realms that beings are capable of being born into and how they come to be born there. Clearly he knew these worlds.

1.5.4 “Sariputta, there are these five destinations. What are the five? Hell, the animal realm, the realm of ghosts, human beings, and gods.

‘I understand hell, and the path and the way leading to hell. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell.

“I understand the animal realm, and the path and the way leading to the animal realm. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in the animal realm.

“I understand the realm of ghosts, and the path and the way leading to the realm of ghosts. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in the realm of ghosts.

“I understand human beings, and the path and the way leading to the human world. And I also understand how one who has entered on this path, will on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear among human beings.

“I understand the gods, and the path leading to the world of the gods. And I also understand how one who has entered on this path, will on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, in the heavenly world.

“I understand Nibbana and the path leading to Nibbana. And I also understand how one who has entered on this path, will by realising for himself with direct knowledge here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance of wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints”
Mn 12 BMR

A description of Dependent Origination in the forward order as an example that the Blessed One knew the world of arising.

1.5.5 “Thus I have heard. At one time the Lord was staying at Uruvela, beside the river Neranjara at the foot of the Bodhi Tree having just realised full enlightenment. At that time the Lord sat crossed legged for seven days experiencing the bliss of liberation. Then, at the end of those seven days, the Lord emerged from that concentration and gave well reasoned attention during the first watch of the night to dependent arising in forward order, thus: 

“This being, that is; from the arising of this, that arises. That is: with ignorance as condition, volitional activities come to be; with volitional activities as condition, consciousness comes to be; with consciousness as condition, name and form comes to be; with name and form as condition, the sixfold sense base comes to be; with the sixfold sense base as condition, contact comes to be; with contact as condition, feeling comes to be; with feeling as condition, craving comes to be; with craving as condition, grasping comes to be; with grasping as condition; being comes to be; with being as a condition, birth comes to be; with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair comes to be. This is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.”

Then, realising its significance, the Lord uttered on that occasion this inspired utterance.
When the truths become manifest
Then all doubts vanish since he understands
How each factor arising has its cause.
Ud 1.1

This quote is quite literally the following sutta from the Udana. This time the Blessed One describes Dependent Origination in reverse order.  

1.5.6 “Thus I have heard. At one time the Lord was staying at Uruvela…for seven days experiencing the bliss of liberation. Then, at the end of those seven days, the Lord emerged from that concentration and gave well reasoned attention during the middle watch of the night to dependent origination in reverse order, thus:

“This not being, that is not; from the cessation of that this ceases. That is: from the cessation of ignorance, volitional activities cease; from the cessation of volitional activities, consciousness ceases; from the cessation of consciousness, name and form ceases; from the cessation of name and form, the sixfold sense base ceases; from the cessation of the sixfold sense base, contact ceases; from the cessation of contact, feeling ceases; from the cessation of feeling, craving ceases; from the cessation of craving, grasping ceases; from the cessation of grasping, being ceases; from the cessation of being, birth ceases; from the cessation of birth, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair cease. This is the ceasing of the whole mass of suffering.”
Then, on realising its significance, the Lord uttered on that occasion this inspired utterance:

When the truths become manifest
To the ardent meditating Brahmin
Then all doubts vanish since he has known
The ending of conditions arising.
Ud 1.2

Dependent Origination as it is usually presented. This sutta clearly illustrates that the Blessed One knew the world of Dependent Origination comprehensively. The way that this sutta is structured with its references to birth, ageing and death shows that the Blessed One knew Dependent Origination in a practical way. It was a ‘world’ because he knew it as a lot more than an intellectual construct.

1.5.7 “Thus I have heard. At one time the Lord was staying at Uruvela…for seven days experiencing the bliss of liberation. Then, at the end of those seven days, the Lord…gave well reasoned attention to dependent arising in both forward and reverse order, thus:

“This being, that is; from the arising of this, that arises; this not being, that is not; from the cessation of this, that ceases. That is: with ignorance as condition, volitional activities come to be…with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair come to be. This is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

“But from the complete disappearance and cessation of ignorance, volitional activities cease…from the cessation of birth, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair cease. This is the ceasing of the whole mass of suffering.”

Then, on realising its significance, the Lord uttered on that occasion this inspired utterance:

When the truths become manifest
To the ardent meditating Brahmin
Scattering Mara’s host he stands
As the sun does illuminating the sky
Ud 1.3         

Tidak ada komentar:

Posting Komentar